CEF & Fast Switching

CEF Quick summary: Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) provides the ability to switch packets through a device in a very quick and efficient way while also keeping the load on the router’s processor low. CEF is made up of two different main components: the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) and the Adjacency Table. These are automatically updated at the same time as the routing table. The adjacency table is tasked with maintaining the layer 2 next-hop information for the FIB. Adjacency Types That Require Special Handling: Glean adjacency – in short when the router is directly connected to hosts the FIB table on the router will maintain a prefix for the subnet rather than for the individual host prefix. This subnet prefix points to a GLEAN adjacency. A glean adjacency entry indicates that a particular next hop should be directly connected, but there is no MAC header rewrite information available. When the device needs to forward packets to a specific host on a subnet, Cisco Express Forwarding requests an ARP entry for the specific prefix, ARP sends the MAC address, and the adjacency entry for the host is built. 
Punt adjacency – When packets to a destination prefix can’t be CEF Switched, or the feature is not supported in the CEF Switching path, the router will then use the next slower switching mechanism configured on the router.
Null adjacency: Packets destined for a Null0 interface are dropped. Null adjacency can be used as an effective form of access filtering. Other special adjacency types are Discard adjacency and Drop adjacency but they are not mentioned here.

Question 1

Refer to the exhibit

Based on this FIB table, which statement is correct?

A. There is no default gateway.
B. The IP address of the router on FastEthernet is 209.168.201.1.
C. The gateway of last resort is 192.168.201.1.
D. The router will listen for all multicast traffic.

Answer: C

The command “show ip cef” is used to display the CEF Forwarding Information Base (FIB) table. There are some entries we want to explain:
+ If the “Next Hop” field of a network prefix is set to receive, the entry represents an IP address on one of the router’s interfaces. In this case, 192.168.201.2 and 192.168.201.31 are IP addresses assigned to interfaces on the local router.
+ If the “Next Hop” field of a network prefix is set to attached, the entry represents a network to which the router is directly attached. In this case the prefix 192.168.201.0/27 is a network directly attached to router R2’s Fa0/0 interface.

But there are some special cases:
+ The all-0s host addresses (for example, 192.168.201.0/32) and the all-1s host addresses (not have in the output above but for example, 192.168.201.255/32) also show as receive entries.
+ 255.255.255.255/32 is the local broadcast address for a subnet
+ 0.0.0.0/32: maybe it is a reserved link-local address
+ 0.0.0.0/0: This is the default route that matching all other addresses (also known as “gateway of last resort”). In this case it points to 192.168.201.1 -> Answer C is correct.

Question 2

Refer to the exhibit.

A network administrator checks this adjacency table on a router. What is a possible cause for the incomplete marking?

A. incomplete ARP information
B. incorrect ACL
C. dynamic routing protocol failure
D. serial link congestion

Answer: A

The “show adjacency” command is used to display information about the Cisco Express Forwarding adjacency table or the hardware Layer 3-switching adjacency table.

There are two known reasons for an incomplete adjacency:
+ The router cannot use ARP successfully for the next-hop interface.
+ After a clear ip arp or a clear adjacency command, the router marks the adjacency as incomplete. Then it fails to clear the entry.

Note: Two nodes in the network are considered adjacent if they can reach each other using only one hop.

Question 3

Which switching method is used when entries are present in the output of the command show ip cache?

A. fast switching
B. process switching
C. Cisco Express Forwarding switching
D. cut-through packet switching

Answer: A

The “show ip cache” command displays the contents of a router’s fast cache. An example of the output of this command is shown below:

Note: If CEF is disabled and fast switching is enabled, the router begins to populate its fast cache.

Question 4

How does an IOS router process a packet that should be switched by Cisco Express Forwarding without an FIB entry?

A. by forwarding the packet
B. by dropping the packet
C. by creating a new FIB entry for the packet
D. by looking in the routing table for an alternate FIB entry

Answer: B

Question 5

At which layer does Cisco Express Forwarding use adjacency tables to populate addressing information?

A. Layer 4
B. Layer 2
C. Layer 1
D. Layer 3

Answer: B

Explanation

Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) provides the ability to switch packets through a device in a very quick and efficient way while also keeping the load on the router’s processor low. CEF is made up of two different main components: the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) and the Adjacency Table. These are automatically updated at the same time as the routing table.

The adjacency table is tasked with maintaining the layer 2 next-hop information for the FIB.

Question 6

A network administrator creates a static route that points directly to a multi-access interface, instead of the next-hop IP address. The administrator notices that Cisco Express Forwarding ARP requests are being sent to all destinations. Which issue might this configuration create?

A. Low bandwidth usage
B. High memory usage
C. Cisco Express Forwarding routing loop
D. High bandwidth usage
E. IP route interference

Answer: C

Question 7

Refer to exhibit. What is indicated by the show ip cef command for an address?

A. CEF is unable to get routing information for this route.
B. CEF cannot switch packet for this route and passes it to the next best switching method.
C. A valid entry and is pointed to hardware based forwarding.
D. CEF cannot switch packet for this route and drops it.

Answer: B

Glean adjacency – in short when the router is directly connected to hosts the FIB table on the router will maintain a prefix for the subnet rather than for the individual host prefix. This subnet prefix points to a GLEAN adjacency.
Punt adjacency – When packets to a destination prefix can’t be CEF Switched, or the feature is not supported in the CEF Switching path, the router will then use the next slower switching mechanism configured on the router.

Question 8

Which Cisco Express Forwarding component maintains Layer 2 addressing information?

A. adjacency table
B. RIB
C. dCEF
D. fast switching
E. FIB

Answer: A

Nodes in the network are said to be adjacent if they can reach each other with a single hop across a link layer. In addition to the FIB, CEF uses adjacency tables to prepend Layer 2 addressing information. The adjacency table maintains Layer 2 next-hop addresses for all FIB entries.

Question 9

IP CEF load-sharing options (Choose three)

A. Tunnel
B. Universal
C. Include-ports
D. Source
E. Destination

Answer: A B C